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Glossary

301 Redirect – A 301 redirect automatically causes one url to redirect to another and tells the Web (and search engines) that this redirect is permanent, as opposed to a temporary (302) redirect. 301 redirects are generally preferable for Search Engine Optimization purposes and are therefore often referred to as search engine friendly redirects.

404 Server Code – The 404 or Not Found error message is a standard response code indicating that the client was able to communicate with a given server, but the server could not find what was requested.

Above the Fold – The part of the page you can see without scrolling down or over. The exact amount of space will vary by viewer because of screen settings. You often pay a premium for advertisement placements above the fold, which will add to the costs of internet marketing services, but may also add to results.

adCenter – Bing Ads powers paid search results on Microsoft’s bing, Yahoo!, and other sites within its network. Bing Ads was formally known as Microsoft adCenter and is now the second largest paid search provider in the United States.

Advertising Network – A group of websites where one advertiser controls all or a portion of the ads for all sites. A common example is the Google Search Network, which includes AOL, Amazon, Ask.com, and thousands of other sites. In Google AdWords, they offer two types of ad networks on the internet: search and display (which used to be called their content network).

Google AdwordsAdWords – AdWords is Google’s paid search marketing program, the largest such program the U.S. Also the largest in the world after China’s Baidu and Russia’s Yandex.

Affiliate – A publisher or site owner that forwards qualified web traffic to an online merchant on a pay-for-performance basis is called an affiliate in the context of online marketing.

Affiliate Links – A universal (uniform) resource locator (URL) that includes an affiliate’s identification number and additional information that makes it easier for merchants to track affiliate activity. In other words, if you want to sell a product as an affiliate, the vendor supplies you with link to their sales page which will track the fact that you sent the visitor, so you will get credit.

Amazon – In the retail context, Amazon is a multi-national online retailer with a market capitalization in excess of $128 billion U.S. as of January 2013. Amazon also hosts a marketplace wherein other Internet vendors may display and sell products, and offers several software-as-a-service and infrastructure-as-a-service solutions for business.

Application Programming Interface (API) – An API is a protocol created to allow separate software solutions to communicate over a relatively simple interface. Developers will often use APIs to connect or integrate systems and services.

Algorithm – The term search engines use for the formulas they use to determine the rankings of your Natural Listings. Search engines periodically send a Spider through your website to view all its information. Their programs then analyze your site and decide how high or low pages on your site will appears on various searches.

ALT Tags – HTML tags used to describe website graphics by displaying a block of text when moused-over. Search engines are generally unable to view graphics or distinguish text that might be contained within them, and the implementation of an ALT tag enables search engines to categorize that graphic.

Google AnalyticsAnalytics– A collection of data about a website and its users. Analytics programs typically give performance data on clicks, time, pages viewed, website paths, and a variety of other information.

Anchor Text – The clickable words of a hypertext link; they will appear as the underlined blue part in standard Web design. In the preceding sentence, “hypertext link” is the anchor text. As with anything in SEO, it can be overdone, but generally speaking, using your important keywords in the anchor text is highly desirable.

Astroturfing – The process of creating fake grassroots campaigns. Astroturfing is often used specifically regarding review sites like Google Places, Yelp, Judy’s Book and more. These fake reviews can be positive reviews for your own company or slander against your competitors. Not a good idea.

Backlinks– Links from other websites pointing to any particular page on your site. Search engines use backlinks to judge a site’s credibility; if a site links to you, the reasoning goes, it is in effect vouching for your authority on a particular subject. Therefore, Link Building is an incredibly important part of Search Engine Optimization. How many links, the quality of the sites linking to you, and how they link to you all are important factors. Also called Inbound Links.

Baidu– Serving primarily China, Baidu is the largest non-US based search engine in the world (although it was started in the United States). Sites can be optimized for Baidu and they offer their own paid search service.

Banned – When a search engine decides a webpage violates their guidelines, it will ban that page – remove it from a search engine’s index and not display it. Typically a search engine will not confirm to you that your site has been banned or why it has been banned. If you knowingly did something against the rules (written or unwritten) that got your site banned, you can probably clean up your act and get back in the game.

Banners – Picture advertisements placed on websites. Branding campaigns often use banner ads. Depending upon their size and shape, banner ads may also be referred to as buttons, inlines, leaderboards, skyscrapers. Banner ads can be static pictures, animated, or interactive.

Behavioral Targeting (BT) – Behavioral targeting puts ads in front of people who should be more receptive to the particular message given past Web behavior, including purchases and websites visited. The use of cookies enables online behavioral targeting.

Bing – Microsoft’s search engine, Bing, displays results in response to a user’s search query. The site uses a complex and secret algorithm to select which sites to display in response to a particular search. Bing also offers a pay-per-click advertising platform, and allows merchants to offer a discount to shoppers.

Black Hat SEO – These Search Engine Optimization, or SEO, tactics are attempted ways of tricking the Search Engines to get better rankings for a website. Black hat methods will eventually get your site drastically lower rankings or banned from the search engines altogether. There are completely legal and ethical techniques you can use to improve rankings. Designing and marketing a website mostly for humans and not for the search  engines’ Spiders usually works well.

Blog – A blog is an online journal or publication that includes relatively short, discrete articles, called posts, that are typically organized by date with the most recent posts first. Frequently, blogs allow readers to add comments to posts. The term blog is a combination of “web” and “log.”

Bounce Rate – The percentage of site visitors that arrive at a single page on a given website, and then leave (bounce) from that same page without visiting any other page on the site.

Brand Stacking – Multiple page one listings from a single domain. Since Google tweaked its algorithm to include Brand Stacking,  as many as eight pages of a single website can achieve top search rankings.

Brick & Mortar Store–A retail outlet or business with at least one physical location.

Business Structure – A company’s legal status or organization. Often refers to incorporation.

Call-to-Action – A phrase, button, link or other website element that specifically asks a visitor to take some action, including purchasing a product, registering, subscribing.

Capture – The process of securing payments from a payment process after an authorization.

Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) – Defines how HTML elements such as layout, colors, & fonts will be displayed. External style sheets can be stored in CSS files which allow for faster loading pages, smaller file sizes, and other benefits for visitors, search engines, and designers.

Categories – Words or phrases used to organize blog posts and other pieces of information, such as albums for photos, on a website. Categories are generally broader than tags and used in instances when there will generally be multiple posts or other data points per category.

ccTLD – ccTLD’s are “Country-code” TLD‘s showing what country a site is focused on or based in. For example, Google for the United Kingdom (Google UK) is google.co.uk. Sometimes these ccTLD’s are two sets of letters separated by a period (e.g. “co.uk” for the UK or “com.au” for Australia) and sometimes they are just one set of letters (e.g. “.fr” for France).

Click through Rate (CTR)– # of clicks / # of impressions. Click through rate is a common internet marketing measurement tool for ad effectiveness. This rate tells you how many times people are actually clicking on your ad out of the number of times your ad is shown.

Cloaking– Showing a search engine spider or bot one version of a Web page and a different version to the end user. Several search engines have explicit rules against unapproved cloaking. Those violating these guidelines may find their pages penalized or banned from a search engine’s index. As for approved cloaking, this generally only happens with search engines that offer a paid inclusion program. Anyone offering cloaking services should be able to demonstrate explicit approval from a search engine for what it is they intend to do.

Comma Separated Values (CSV) – A file type that stores data values.

Content Management System (CMS) – A software solution that makes it possible to create, edit, maintain, publish, and display content on the Internet from a single interface or administration tool.  CMS examples include WordPress, Drupal, and Joomla.

Content Tags – HTML tags which define the essence of the content contained within them and readable by search spiders. These include Header and Alt Tags.

Contextual Advertising –Allows your advertisement to be placed next to related news articles and pages and postings with similar context. Contextual advertising seeks to match Web content from the display page with your advertised search term(s).

Conversion – A marketing term that describes when a user or visitor completes some action or achieves some marketing goal. More specifically, conversion is often used to describe when a site visitor converts to a customer or interested person. It could mean a sign up for free information, a completed survey, a purchase made, or other.

Cost per Acquisition (CPA) – An online advertising cost structure where you pay per an agreed upon actionable event, such as a lead, registration, or sale.

Cost per Click (CPC) – A common way to pay for search engine and other types of online advertising, CPC means you pay a pre-determined amount each time someone clicks on your advertisement to visit your site. You usually set a top amount you are willing to pay per click for each search term, and the amount you pay will be equal or less to that amount, depending on the particular search engine and your competitors’ bids. Also referred to as Pay Per Click (PPC).

Cost per Impression (CPM) – A common internet marketing cost structure, especially for banner advertising. You agree to pay a set cost for every 1,000 Impressions your ad receives. Search engine marketing may involve CPM costs for Contextual Advertising. This internet advertising pay structure should really be called Cost per 1,000 Impressions.

Crawler – Component of a search engine that gathers listings by automatically “crawling” the Web. A search engine’s crawler (also known as a Spider or robot) follows links to Web Pages. It analyzes those pages and stores the results in a search engine’s index.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) – A software solution specifically devoted to organizing, synchronizing, and automating a business’ customer relationships.

Delisting – When pages or whole websites are removed from a search engine’s index. This may happen because they have been Banned.

Description Tags – HTML tags which provide a brief description of your site that search engines can understand. Description tags should contain the main keywords of the page it is describing in a short summary.

Directories – Sites that list and link to other websites.

Distributor – A distribution business that inventories products from a number of manufacturers and sells to many retailers. Often distributors are able to offer shorter lead times than manufacturers and may sell in smaller quantities. It is common for distributors to charge a premium over a manufacturer-direct price for the service and convenience provided.

Domain – The root address for a web page. For example, the domain of this website is az-web.com.

Dropshipping / Drop Shipping – A fulfillment strategy wherein the retailer does not actually inventory the product, but instead passes the shipping address to either the manufacturer, or a distributor that actually ships the purchased items directly to the customer.

eBay – An online auction and shopping website, best known for its consumer-to-consumer sales. Many online merchants also use eBay as a sales channel.

Ecommerce – Buying and selling products over electronic networks, including the Internet or mobile applications. The term may apply specifically to electronic transactions or more generally to the online retailing and online business. Website features that allow ecommerce are commonly called shopping carts.

Email Marketing – Using email is one of the most effective forms of internet marketing. Email campaign systems allow organizations to send out emails to their email lists with a standard look and feel. Features often include the ability to segment lists.

Exporting – The practice of selling items to wholesale or retail customers in another country.

Feed – A feed uses an XML language using either RSS or Atom formatting. By clicking on an RSS button on a website, users can stay connected to a site’s content (Blogs, news, podcasts, etc.) automatically anytime their computers are connected to the internet. This is a popular way for organizations to get their messages through the clutter and into the hands of interested parties.

Forum – A website where people with common interests or backgrounds come together to find information and discuss topics.

Fulfillment – In ecommerce, fulfillment is the process of completing an order. That is, once the customer has purchased, fulfillment is sending the product to the customer. The term may also be applied to third-party companies that inventory products and ship orders on behalf of an online store.

Geo-Targeting – The ability to reach potential clients by their physical location. The major search engines now all offer the ability to geo-target searches in their Pay-Per-Click campaigns by viewing their ip addresses. Geo-targeting allows advertisers to specify which markets they do and don’t want to reach.

Google – The leading search engine provider, Google displays search results using a complex and secret algorithm that considers many factors. The company seeks to show its users the best possible results. Google also provides other services, including a pay-per-click advertising network, payment processing solutions, product discovery tools, and an excellent analytics platform.

Google Keyword Tool – A free keyword suggestion tool included in the Google AdWords Platform. The tool uses data from the many searches conducted on the Google search engine to suggest keywords for a given URL and category.

Google Partner – Google AdWords offers the most extensive certification process of any of the paid search marketing providers via the Google Partner program.

Google Trends – A search engine tool that shows how often a particular term or keyword is searched for on Google. Results are shown in a relative scale, making the tool well suited for comparing keywords or phrases. Trends will also show where searches came from and how search volume for a particular keyword has changed over time.

Header Tags – HTML heading and subheading tags which are critical components of search engine placement. These, along with page titles, are used by the search engine spiders to define the page’s purpose and theme. All of the header tags should be used according to their relevance, with more prominent titles utilizing <h1>, subheaders using <h2>, and so on.

HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) – A markup language specifically created for displaying web pages and applications in web browsers. Like other markup languages, HTML annotates a document, describing its layout and syntax.

Hyperlink – Often blue and underlined, hyperlinks, commonly called “links” for short, allow the user to navigate to other pages on the Web with a click of themouse. This hyperlink takes you to a page with more information about Profit Canvas marketing software with free 1-on-1 coaching and webinars.

Impressions – The number of times a page is displayed containing your ad. Note that this is not the same as someone actually seeing the ad, making placement and an understanding of the site’s traffic particularly important.

Inbound or Incoming Links – See Backlinks.

Index – The collection of information a search engine has that searchers can query against.

Internet Marketing – Any of a number of ways to reach internet users, including Search Engine Marketing, Search Engine Optimization, Email Marketing, and Banner advertising.

Internal Linking – Placing hyperlinks on a page, linking to other pages within the same site. This helps users find more information, improve site interaction, and enhances SEO efforts.

Inventory – The value or quantity of a retailer’s current stock of products.

JavaScript – Not to be confused with its distant cousin Java, JavaScript is a scripting programming language used to make web pages interactive and dynamic.

Keyword – Almost interchangeable with Search Term, keywords are words or a group of words that a person may search for in a Search Engine. Keywords also refer to the terms you bid on through search engine marketing in trying to attract visitors to your website or Landing Page. Part of successful Search Engine Optimization is including keywords in your website copy and Meta Tags.

Keyword Stuffing – When the Web was young and search engines were starting to gain in popularity, some smart website owners realized that the search engine Algorithms really liked some Meta Tags. So they started stuffing a bunch of keywords, often with high search volumes and no relevancy to the site, into title, description, and keyword tags. Sites instantly rocketed to the top of search engine rankings. Soon thereafter the search engines changed their ranking formulae and the sites lost their positions or were outright Banned.

Keyword Tags – HTML tags which define the keywords used on Web pages. Meta keyword tags used to carry great weight with some older search engines until they caught up with the spammers using this practice and modified their algorithms. Today Google is officially on record for not giving these tags any weight.

Landing Pages – In the online marketing context, a landing page is a single web page that is displayed in response to a particular call to action. That is, a landing page is the first page a person sees when coming to your website from an advertisement. Landing pages are often shown in response to a link in a pay-per-click ad, a link in an email, or a specific URL shown in offline advertising. Landing pages include content meant to meet the expectation set with the link a visitor clicked.

Limited Liability Company (LLC) – A business structure that blends some of the best elements of a partnership and a corporation.

Link Building – Simply stated, link building is the process of obtaining hyperlinks (links) from other websites back to yours. Link building is a crucial part of Search Engine Optimization. Link building strategies must include content creation and building relationships with influencers who can share your content and naturally link to your site.

Link Popularity – How many websites link to yours, how popular those linking sites are, and how much their content relates to yours. Link popularity is an important part of Search Engine Optimization, which also values the sites that you link out to.

Linking Root Domains – In search engine optimization, when site A links to site B one or more times, site A is said to be a linking root domain. Linking root domains — in the plural — are the total number of unique sites that link one or more times to a given website.

Liquidator – A company that purchases closeout products for the purpose of resale.

Listing Fees – Marketplaces and online auction sites, like eBay, may charge a nominal listing fee for posting products.

Logistics – The management of products or other resources as they travel between a point of origin and a destination. In ecommerce, logistics might describe the process of transporting inventory to a merchant or the act of shipping orders to customers.

Long Tail – Posited in the October 2004 issue of Wired Magazine, the Long Tail is Chris Anderson’s idea that markets and marketplaces, especially online, are moving away from mainstream, broad-appeal products toward niche products. In ecommerce, new retailers may find it easier and more cost effective to focus on niche products.

Long-Tail Variations – In search engine optimization and pay-per-click advertising, Long-Tail variations are keywords similar in meaning or root to other high-volume keywords, but less competitive. Long-Tail variations are often employed when a business is just starting out and cannot gain traction or afford to bid on top performing keywords.

Long-Tail Traffic – Website traffic derived from Long-Tail variation keywords or from niche searches and keywords in general.

Manufacturer – A company that makes goods for the purpose of sale.

Manufacturer’s Suggested Retail Price (MSRP) – The price at which a manufacturer recommends that retailers sell a given product.

Margins – The difference between what a retailer pays for a product and what the retailer’s customer pays for the product. Margin calculations may consider only the cost of the goods sold or may take into account overhead and other variable costs.

Minimum Order Size – Manufacturers or distributors may require retailers to place orders that meet a minimum value or unit count. This requirement would be the minimum order size.

Multi-Channel Retailing – Retailing products through more than one channel where channels include online stores, online marketplaces like Amazon, physical stores, physical catalogs, and similar.

Net Profit – The difference between a business’ revenue and its costs – all of its costs. Net profit may be thought of as the money left over after every bill is paid.

Niche – A distinct market segment.

Organic – In the context of search engine optimization and search engine marketing, organic results are those listings search engines show because of their relevance to a query, not because a site owner paid for an ad or paid to be featured.

Outsource – The process of contracting work to external, third-party organizations.

Overhead – The ongoing expenses associated with operating a business.

PageRank – Google’s proprietary page ranking system that places emphasis on inbound links as a means of determining how important a given page is. PageRank can be measured on either a ten-point or 100-point scale.

Patent – Protection for some forms of intellectual property, granting the inventory exclusive right to manufacture, use, or sell an invention for a certain number of years.

PayPal –  Founded in 1998, PayPal is a leading, worldwide payment processing company. The service can process payments for merchants.

Pay Per Click (PPC) – An online advertising model wherein advertisers pay only when a prospect clicks on an advertisement and is directed to the advertiser’s website. Google’s AdWords platform is an example of pay-per-click promotion.

Per-Order Fee –  When a manufacturer or distributor drop ships an order directly to a customer on a retailers behave that manufacturer or distributor may change a per-order fee for processing.

Profit Margin – The difference between what a retailer pays for a product and what the retailer’s customer pays for the product. Margin calculations may consider only the cost of the goods sold or may take into account overhead and other variable costs.

Quantitative Metrics – In online marketing, quantitative metrics are those measures that may be represented as numbers. Click-through rates, visitor counts, and time-on-site are all examples of quantitative metrics.

Qualitative Metrics – In online marketing, qualitative metrics seek to measure the quality of a customer interaction, and may be subjective in nature. A retailer, as an example, may implement a new product review campaign, compare reviews written before and after the campaign, awarding each review a qualitative score, and then use the relative scored to decide if the campaign was successful.

Reseller – A company that purchases goods or services for the purpose of resale not consumption. In web economics, a reseller may also be a form of affiliate marketer, promoting a rebranded service.

Retailer – A company that sells directly to the end consumer.

Search Engine Marketing (SEM) – Online marketing aimed at increasing a given website’s visibility on a search engine results page (SERP) by both optimizing the website for indexing and purchasing ads or paid inclusions.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO) – The process of making a website easier for search engine bots to index and categorize.

Search Engine Results Page (SERP) – A search engine web page displaying the list of responses to a particular search query.

Shipping – The process of physically moving merchandise form a point of origin, like a retailer’s warehouse, to a destination, like a customer’s home.

Social Media – Internet-based tools or websites that facilitate sharing of content, opinions, links, images, or videos between people.

Social Media Marketing – A branch of Internet marketing aimed at promoting products or service via social media. It may be thought of as web-based word-of-mouth marketing.

Sole Proprietorship – A business structure wherein a single individual both owns and runs the company. For the most part, there is not legal distinction between the owner and the business.

Split Testing – In online marketing, a testing model that has marketers simultaneously test two variables (often labeled A and B) in order to discover which variation in web page or ad content or design produces the best possible result.

Supply Chain – A network or system of businesses involved in moving a product from its manufacturing point to the customer. In online retailing, the supply chain usually represents the distributor and manufacturer of a product.

Trade Show – An exhibition created so that manufacturers and distributors may show or demonstrate new products or services.

Traffic – In Internet marketing, traffic represents the number of visitors a particular page or site receives.

Usability – The relative ease of navigating, reading, or otherwise interacting with a website or web application.

Vertical – An industry segment made up of similar business and customers.

Wholesale Price – The price manufacturers, distributors, or other wholesalers charge retailers for products.

Wholesaler – A manufacturer, distributor, or similar that sells to retailers.